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Wednesday, 23 November 2011

Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)


Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)

The presentation introduces DAR process and example.



Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is a support process at CMMi level 3.

The purpose of DAR is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria.


Specific Practices by Goal
  • SG 1 Evaluate Alternatives
    • SP 1.1 Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis
    • SP 1.2 Establish Evaluation Criteria
    • SP 1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions
    • SP 1.4 Select Evaluation Methods
    • SP 1.5 Evaluate Alternative Solutions
    • SP 1.6 Select Solutions

Where to use DAR?
Business Decisions
  • Personal (hires, promotions, transfers, layoff)
  • Requirement prioritization
  • Supplier selection
  • Any business problem
Technical Decisions
  • Life Cycle
  • Platforms
  • Architectures
  • Programming language
  • Technical solutions
  • Any technical problems

Tools used for DAR
  • Decision Trees
  • Six Thinking Hats
  • Grid Analysis
  • Pareto Analysis
  • Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • Matched Pairs
  • Brainstorming
  • Nominal Group
  • Ranking Technique
  • One Half Plus One
  • Weighted Multivoting
  • Weighted Tables
  • Modified Delphi Technique
  • Force Field Analysis
Grid Analysis

Grid Analysis works by getting you to list your options as rows on a table, and the factors you need consider as columns. You then score each option/factor combination, weight this score by the relative importance of the factor, and add these scores up to give an overall score for each option.

Steps:
List all of your options as the row labels on the table, and list the factors that you need to consider as the column headings. For example, if you were buying a new laptop computer, factors to consider might be cost, dimensions, and hard disk size.
  1. Next, work your way down the columns of your table, scoring each option for each of the factors in your decision. Score each option from 0 (poor) to 5 (very good). Note that you do not have to have a different score for each option - if none of them are good for a particular factor in your decision, then all options should score 0.
  2. The next step is to work out the relative importance of the factors in your decision. Show these as numbers from, say, 0 to 5, where 0 means that the factor is absolutely unimportant in the final decision, and 5 means that it is very important. (It's perfectly acceptable to have factors with the same importance.)
  3. Now multiply each of your scores from step 2 by the values for relative importance of the factor that you calculated in step 3. This will give you weighted scores for each option/factor combination.
  1. Finally, add up these weighted scores for each of your options. The option that scores the highest wins!

Example

A windsurfing enthusiast is about to replace his car. He needs one that not only carries a board and sails, but also one that will be good for business travel. He has always loved open-topped sports cars, but no car he can find is good for all three things.
His options are:
  • An SUV/4x4, hard topped vehicle.
  • A comfortable "'family car."
  • A station wagon/estate car.
  • A convertible sports car.
Factors that he wants to consider are:
  • Cost.
  • Ability to carry a sail board safely.
  • Ability to store sails and equipment securely.
  • Comfort over long distances.
  • Fun!
  • Look, and build quality.


Roles and Responsibilities in DAR process

Decision Owner
The decision owner is the person ultimately responsible for making the final decision. The decision owner’s activities
consist of:
  • Completing the DAR worksheet
  • Ensuring that the appropriate evaluation criteria and evaluation method(s) are identified for the solutions under consideration
  • Ensuring that a final decision is reached

Decision Participant
A decision participant is someone who is involved in the decision-making process. The decision participant shall have the knowledge and background required to assist in making an informed decision. DAR participants shall have the appropriate organizational authority to make the decision.

Decision Stakeholder
A decision stakeholder is someone who is affected by the decision but does not necessarily participate in the decision making process.

4 comments:

  1. Wonderful article. But recently if you are looking for a new project management job or if you might have asked for a promotion within your company then you might have heard about PMP credentials!!. It is true that a Project Management Professional (PMP) credential is one of the most sought certifications by employers and employees alike. For its detail information about a PMP certifications you can go through http://www.pmstudy.com/

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  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  3. Good to know about Decision analysis and resolution(DAR) Specially the Specific Goals and Practices which you show cased are worthy to know, But I am having a specific doubt about this decision analysis i;e Wheather a person who opts for PMP Certification Training should be involve in decision analysis, is it mandatory?
    And moreover does a PMP Certified person have the right to make a decision analysis??

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  4. Nice post! Thanks.

    In case if you are looking for a DAR template, it is available at
    http://www.agilechamps.com/dar-how-to-find-a-better-option-when-you-have-multiple-solution-for-a-given-problem/

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